Why hasn't the darknet been shut down yet?
Today, there is increasing news that states want to block the darknet. A sensible initiative, but completely unrealizable. Speaking of the darknet, we mean the Tor network (also i2p or Freenet).Only North Korea could ban Tor.
Where to access a computer with the Internet you need the personal permission of the leader. But take for example China with its firewall, adam", the "Golden Shield" – the most advanced system of control of the Internet by the state. It is also not possible to enter the black market by darknet sites.
Even China hasn't been able to block the darknet. Why?
The "Golden Shield" works thanks to DPIequipment. DPI is a physical filter installed in a data center that passes all the traffic through itself and deeply analyzes it. The system not only knows which site you go to and what you are looking for on the Internet, but also with whom you correspond and what applications you use.
DPI performs behavioral analysis of traffic, i.e. analyzes packets, having the same characteristics: size, frequency of opening new sessions per second, etc. and understands that this is a torrent, this is a VPNservice, and this is an attempt to go to a banned site. DPI can block such traffic, or greatly reduce the speed.
But if DPIsystems recognize not only traffic, but also program patterns, why then can't you identify the pattern of the Tor browser and block it at the provider level? First you need to understand how Tor works. Tor's work is similar to anonymous mail from Harry Potter.
In Slytherin, they did this: the sender handed over the envelope and ten coins to the reliable courier, and he, in turn, gave the envelope and five coins to the second courier. The second courier opened the envelope. inside of which was another envelope with an address and now he was already delivering a letter. Thus, none of the couriers knew either the sender or the recipient at the same time, and did not even realize that there was any connection between them.
When you enter the Tor network, your computer itself becomes an access point for someone, and you connect to another computer from the network. He redirects traffic to another, that to another, etc. The chain is formed randomly and changes every 10 minutes automatically, Or by reconnecting to the network. If Tor were slithering mail, dozens of couriers would carry one thick envelope that would have an envelope in it, in which there would be an envelope, and another envelope... Like bulbous scales. By this analogy, TOR, or The Onion Router, is called a bulbous browser.
For the DPIsystem, this looks like asymmetric traffic, because you give a signal to one legitimate host, and receive it from another, It is also legal, without getting to the banned sites directly. It is impossible to deal with such traffic, because such patterns are used by both instant messengers and online games to provide better ping. Usually, in conjunction with Tor, proxies and VPNs are used so that the traffic goes through an encrypted communication channel, and your real IP does not glow. Thus, it is impossible to calculate someone or something.
But why, then, do the security services constantly catch bad guys through Tor? For example, in January 2021, Germany closed the world's largest darknet black market DarkMarket.In September 2020, they covered the Wall Street black market and arrested 179 people during the Disruptor special operation. In 2017, the Dutch police arrested the owners of the Hansa store. , and the FBI shut down AlphaBay,an even bigger competitor. Arrests happen all the time. How do they do it if Tor is safe and anonymous?
There are 3 options:
The developers of Tor themselves leak backdoors to their comrades in uniform,
Violators themselves give themselves out offline,
Criminals do not follow the rules of anonymity.
Technically, Tor is anonymous, but if he is used by a careless or simply stupid person who turns on cookies or location, then it is his own fault. It is known that Tor was created in the research laboratory of the US Navy and still the network receives funding from the American state. Proof is on the official website of the Tor. It is possible that the State Department may have access to some backdoors to hunt down the right people. But more often, special services use a rectal-thermal method of information extraction, or they introduce their agents undercover in supply chains. But the best work is a simple human hopeless stupidity: a large black market drug dealer will be merged by his chatty accomplices, and the carder is easier to calculate from his Instagram, where he posts wads of money.
Why is Tor sponsored by legitimate companies?
Since the darknet is dangerous, full of scammers, and the very fact of visiting pedo sites can already be nightmarish to the police (and will be absolutely right), then why is Tor sponsored by legal companies like Google, DARPA the Media Democracy Foundation and many others? As you know, censorship on the Internet is increasing, and the open part of the darkweb resembles the very free Internet of the 90s. Only here you can, as in the good old days, surf the web and feel the wind of freedom! Large media through Tor can receive information from informants confidentially. For example, the British The Guardian has placed mailboxes in the zone. onion, so that users can upload documents without "highlighting" their IPaddress.
Bad darknet for good purposes
A bad darknet can be used for good purposes as well. For example, some person wants to borrow a large amount of money from you. It is impossible to legally break through it, and using the resources of the darknet, you can spy on criminal records, find out why a person received fines, etc. And already on the basis of objective data, you should understand whether to trust him or not. Of course, this is all illegal, but even such a seemingly undeniable evil can be used for good.